Sand casting technique is the most popular production

sand casting technique is the most popular production, particularly for ferrous castings. Sand is mixed with clay and water or chemical binders and then packed or rammed around the pattern to form a half mold. The two halves are joined together to make the model – rigid cavity that provides the shape necessary for casting, as shown in Fig. 6 below. Among the variations on the technique to use sand and plaster application process recently invented Patternless (CDC 2000), where the model is directly machined from a block of sand without the need for pattern. Cores produced by blowing, ramming or heating processes, investing sand into a core box. The finished cores, can be solid or hollow, inserted into the mold to the internal cavities to provide solutions before the mold halves are joined. Sand cores which are also widely used in diecasting, where metal molds are permanently employed.

While sand casting the largest production technique, other methods are used, as described below. The content of the various techniques used in the UK are shown in Figure 7. The metal molds used for the production of certain types including centrifugal casting and diecasting techniques. Centrifugal involved (spun) casting pouring the metal into a rotating mold and used for hoses, rolls and make cylinder liners. Die-casting is commonly used for the production of aluminum and zinc castings. For investment and Replicast processes (Ashton 2002), expendable pattern replicas are made in wax or polystyrene and then coated with ceramic refractory material for hard shell. Wax is removed from the steam and polystyrene shell is removed by firing.

The shell is then fired at 1000o C to fix the ceramic bond. For solutions, the shells are sometimes embedded in vacuum packed or chemically bonded sand to support and enable thinner shell is employed. lost foam casting is another change in their pattern used polystyrene replicas. In this process, the replica pattern is coated with a single coat of paint refractory and embedded in a box of sand, which can be bonded or stiffened by chemical vacuum. The molten metal is poured directly on the polystyrene replica of vaporisation result.